The phenomenon of ‘microdosing’

The phenomenon of ‘microdosing’

, that is, regular ingestion of very small quantities of psychedelic substances, has seen a rapid explosion of popularity in recent years. Individuals who microdose report minimal acute effects from these microdosing shrooms substances yet claim a range of long-term general health and wellbeing benefits. There have been no published empirical studies of microdosing and the current legal and bureaucratic climate makes direct empirical investigation of the effects of psychedelics difficult. In Study One we conducted a systematic, observational investigation of individuals who microdose. We tracked the experiences of 98 microdosing participants, who provided daily ratings of psychological functioning over a six week period. 63 of these additionally completed a battery of psychometric measures tapping mood, attention, wellbeing, mystical experiences, personality, creativity, and sense of agency, at baseline and at completion of the study. Analyses of daily ratings revealed a general increase in reported psychological functioning across all measures on dosing days but limited evidence of residual effects on following days. Analyses of pre and post study measures revealed reductions in reported levels of depression and stress; lower levels of distractibility; increased absorption; and increased neuroticism. To better understand these findings, in Study Two we investigated pre-existing beliefs and expectations about the effects of microdosing in a sample of 263 naïve and experienced microdosers, so as to gauge expectancy bias. All participants believed that microdosing would have large and wide-ranging benefits in contrast to the limited outcomes reported by actual microdosers. Notably, the effects believed most likely to change were unrelated to the observed pattern of reported outcomes. The current results suggest that dose controlled empirical research on the impacts of microdosing on mental health and attentional capabilities are needed.


Microdosing refers to the practice of ingesting a very low dose of a psychedelic substance []. There has been little peer-reviewed research on microdosing but there are numerous blogs and online communities that discuss the practice, with detailed guides to methods and anecdotal reports of outcomes). Typical doses can be as small as one twentieth of a typical recreational dose, sometimes even less []. So, for example, a microdose of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) might be 6–25 micrograms, or a microdose of psilocybin might be .1 to .5 grams of dried mushrooms []. People microdose using a wide range of different substances, although LSD and psilocybin are the most commonly discussed in online forums [].



Good Things to Draw For an Art Portfolio

Good Things to Draw For an Art Portfolio



Art portfolios are the calling card of professional artists. Everybody always gets asked for their portfolio of work, even if they are established artists.

Many aspiring artists have Things to draw a common question regarding their portfolio of work, namely, what should be included?

Typical university requirements make restrictions such as prohibiting cartoons or doodles, tracings, copyrighted figures, uninterpreted renderings or photographs.

While the list may seem pointless to some, it can actually stimulate more creativity when you are encouraged to explore subject matter you may have not previously considered, or dismissed without a proper attempt.

Your art portfolio is your artists passport which it is important to present your artistic range. You need to express yourself through different media and different subject matter.

Make sure you have a self portrait of some kind,even if that means simply a drawing of your hand, in fact a drawing of your hand is a great addition to your portfolio.

Mix it up a bit with a pencil drawing, a pen and ink drawing, pastels and even a scratch board, to show the viewer you can work with many mediums.

Everyday objects can take on a new meaning when interpreted with the artists choice of style and materials. One idea for a drawing is find something simple like a chair and draw it making the negative space your focus. Although the person looking (and probably judging) your work may have seen thousands of similar images before, yours definitely is unique. You must try to demonstrate techniques which bring out your individual style.

Whistlers Mother was immortalized when he took the everyday scene of his mother sitting on a chair and brought his artistic talents to the scene, painted in London. It was shown at the Royal Academy of Art in 1872 under the original title of ‘Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother‘ which goes to show the title that sticks isn’t always the one the artist give it.

The take away is that this piece was using a limited color palette with a common scene and setting. The artistic interpretation is something you, as an artist would add. Your  should be able to guide you in this.

Your art portfolio should include examples of your preferred work, together with a subject in a variety of mediums from different viewpoint.

One final important point is that you should always have high resolution copies of any work in your portfolio. Make certain you have at least two copies away from your studio or home. This is an option that wasn’t even possible a few years ago, but your work can enter a whole new dimension with digital copies.



Why Did China Seek Friends in Africa in the 1950s

Why Did China Seek Friends in Africa in the 1950s

In the 1950s, fascination, confusion, and even alarm are adjec-tives that best described the reaction of many political observers to the Chinese seeking friends and allies in Africa. An executive editor of the New York Times, Mr. Seymour Freidin, wrote:

Red Chinese drive into Africa involves a long range effort to dominate the continent totally and populate it with Chinese.

Mr. Seymour’s sentiments were not uncommon at the time. There was a great deal of confusion as to what the Chinese were actually up to. This was due in large part to the inconsistent nature of policies pursued by the Chinese in those early years. This was exemplified in the so-called split-level or dual diplomacy. Simply put, this was the   Africa   pursuit of the “United Front From Above” (government-to-government relations), and the “United Front From Below” (support for wars of national liberation). In practice, this meant the Chinese would support “revolutionary” opposition groups while at the same time supporting the legitimate government of an African country. I take this up in Chapter 3.

To the question of this chapter, why Africa? The simple answer is ideology, manifested in both domestic Chinese politics and in her international relations. In particular, China’s emerging conflict with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the United States of America (USA) were to play a role in the Chinese drive into Africa. I will deal with the ideological factors in the next section.

First, I would like to briefly point to historical reasons which some Chinese leaders used as a primary argument for their interest in Africa. For example, they pointed to the fact that in October 1415, Chinese explorer and Admiral Zheng He reached the eastern coast of Africa and sent the first of two giraffes as gifts to the Chinese Yongle Emperor. Zheng brought gifts and granted titles from the Ming emperor to the local rulers, with the aim of establishing a large number of tributary states. Indeed, it is worth noting that China and Africa have a history of trade relations, sometimes through third parties, dating back as far as 202 BC and AD 220.

I will now deal with the domestic factors and the ideological disputes with the United States and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).


At the Eighth Congress of the Chinese Communist party in 1956, it was clear the new China had been making a determined effort to expand her influence in the outside world, particularly in the “vast intermediate areas” of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In Chinese eyes, the countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America remain the potential field for revolutions of the Chinese type. This was one area in which they felt a special ideological leadership to offer. Ten years later, in 1965, this belief was exemplified by Lin Biao’s celebrated thesis entitled “Long Live the victory of the People’s war”. His core argument was that;

Comrade Mao’s theory of the estab-lishment of rural revolutionary base areas and the encirclement of the cities from the countryside is of outstanding and universal importance for the present revolutionary struggles of all the oppressed nations and peoples, particularly, those in Africa.

Furthermore, The CCP claimed that it was waging a class struggle in defense of Maoism, the true revolutionary, against allies of Nikita Khrushchev in the CCP-the so-called allied forces of “reaction”- and imperialism and revisionism in the world at large. The party described its actions as a ‘sharp class struggle’ and the ‘socialist education’ against “renascent bourgeois ideology, bureaucratic degeneration, and anti-party elements” in the Chinese Communist party (CCP).

If Mao was to gain complete control over his enemies and prove his ideological position correct, China had to find allies abroad to form the broadest possible United Front for a “struggle” against the “corrupting revisionist influence” of Russia and the imperialist drive of the United States of America. As Mao, not Khrushchev was the true revolutionary; the drive into Africa was an attempt to assert China’s ideological supremacy over USSR.

It is fascinating and quite remarkable in my view to see that China’s leaders in the late 1950s and 1960s did seriously consider Africa would be of key importance in realpolitik. They were consumed by the belief that Africa was both the center of the anti-colonial struggle and the center for the East and West to fight for control of the “intermediate zone”.

The theory of the “intermediate Zone” is an interesting one as it formed the foundation for this belief. Introduced by Mao in the late 1940s, the theory claimed that between the United States and the Soviet Union exist a vast “intermediate zone” mainly composed of “oppressed” non-Western countries, including China.

Before the “imperialist” United States of America could attack the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, they first had to control the intermediate zone, according to Mao. This then made Asia and Africa the central arena of the Cold War. When Mao and the Chinese Communist Party seized political power in China, they immediately proclaimed revolutionary China as a natural ally of the “oppressed peoples” in the “intermediate zone”. They saw themselves as champions that held the banner of anti-imperialism and anti colonialism, challenging the United States of America and other Western imperialist/colonial powers.


Teenage Gambling At Post Prom High School Party

Teenage Gambling At Post Prom High School Party


The latest trend to hit high schools is supervised teenage gambling at the Post Prom School Party. Over the past few months I have received numerous emails from parents, students and school faculty expressing concern about the new alternative entertainment    UFABET     . In all cases these people believe it would do more harm then good.

The concept became reality for students once the Post Prom Committee voted to accept this new alternative entertainment.
This Post Prom Committee believes this is safe night party for the High School prom. The students who are taking part are between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years old. Each student is able to purchase fake money to gamble with and at the end of the night they can trade this money in for prizes with at the end of the night. Some parents believe this is a safe wonderful event for their children. While others believe this is one area they prefer their kids not be involved with.

One of the emails I received was from a family who home schools their five children. I was surprised since their kids were not involved. She had explained to me that her daughter who is seventeen has friends who attend the public school system. She went on to tell me the negative behavior exhibited by these teens after the event took place. In fact they taught her daughter how to play black jack and poker. This is a good neighborhood that has strong community ties. She also informed me that she not see the difference between using fake money or real money when you still have a chance to win a prize that has value. She believes these teens are being educated on how to gamble, win and take the easy way out.

People in favor of this gambling event, nicely told those who were against it to have their teenager’s stay home. It was my understanding the post prom parties were supposed to be for everyone.

It surprised me that a school district finds gambling night an acceptable behavior for our teenagers.

I have seen first hand the self destruction gambling can do to teenagers and adults. It’s my belief that gambling should be limited to people who are eighteen and over.

Another email was asking me for the specific statistics on the negative impact on a teenager’s who attend a gambling event. General statistics reflect a percentage of those in attendance will develop a compulsive gambling addiction. Some of these same students may become addicted at some point in their life. I have found that addictions to gambling are not age sensitive. People of any age who are gambling for the very first time can develop a gambling addiction. Usually a friend or family member takes them to the gambling establishment. I first found it difficult to understand how a person who is sixty five retired and on a fixed income gets addicted to gambling. The seniors I spoke with were very upset and didn’t understand how this happened to them. The unfortunate part is they lost their pensions and now only have their Social Security to live on. In one case the Grandmother has to move in with her daughter.

There is very little difference between supervised gambling and allowing supervised drinking alcoholic beverages or serving the students there choice of dugs on a silver platter. If a Principal served a student an alcoholic drink he would be arrested. I am trying to understand how school educators and parents can distinguish between alcohol and gambling on school property. How is one more acceptable then the other?

Studies have shown that there is a correlation between alcohol addiction and gambling addiction. The correlation was based on individuals who attend both Gamblers Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous meetings.

It would be a shame to find out ten years from now that students who took part in supervised gambling at the High School level their future was compromised by a life of self destruction and low self esteem.

It’s a proven statistics that students who gamble get a similar rush as if they just had an alcoholic beverage. The only difference here they will not wake up with a hang over and the side effects are minimal until it’s too late.

We have now given our students another option in life. The major concern is the student’s will probably like the rush from gambling a lot more then alcohol and or drugs since there is no hang over or smell. Some students are likely to continue gambling. Students with A grades are not exempt from this. Statistics show that compulsive teenage gamblers are also very bright and articulate individuals.

People need to be educated on teenage gambling and its long term affects. It’s illegal to gamble if you are under 18. It’s also illegal to drink if you are under 18 (some places 21) and it’s illegal to smoke cigarettes if you are under 18. These laws were set for a reason. Another email I received wanted to know do these school systems have any respect for the Law?


US Gambling in the Midst of UIGEA  

US Gambling in the Midst of UIGEA  

Online gambling in United States is endangered with the passing of the UIGEA or Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act. It was enforced in 2007 and since then it has dramatically curtailed the online gambler population. Many gambling websites have    already stopped operating and many online gamblers have controlled      UFABET    their urge to gamble for the fear of being caught.

Such scare continued to linger despite the efforts to assure people. A few online gambling sites offer gambling system in roulette in which the prizes double with succeeding loss. This martingale system aims to attract more players. Many people aren’t aware of this prohibition and so aren’t familiar with its specifics. This led to false notions, and because of that, information campaign regarding UIGEA has become necessary.

Gambling Sanction

The major implication of UIGEA is to prevent operation of online gambling sites, thereby, preventing players to gamble. This is a US law and is being enacted in two ways. First, it compels legal operations of gambling sites through qualification assessment and issuance of gambling license as administered by Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, which will oversee the legalities of operations. Second, other games shall be reclassified and redefined for delineation; hence, games like chess, roulette, and poker shall be removed from the UIGEA scope.

UIGEA does have a good result-security in gambling for US players. Since it tracks down different online gambling sites, it is almost impossible for them to run away, supposing they commit crimes. The main issue is that the UIGEA stirred the industry drastically. A more pressing situation is its ineffective enforcement. The irregularity in enforcement made UIGEA a culprit of setbacks in the online gambling world, no less.

General Picture

UIGEA is so inefficiently enforced that it has become a culprit of profound problems encountered in online gambling today. The issue has a lot to do with the shareholders who invested funds in gambling sites. Because of the impending prohibition of gambling, many shareholders withdrew their shares from online gambling sites because of fear of bankruptcy. This slump causes many gambling websites to shut down operations. As more sites closed, people began to believe that it was going to be the end of online gambling in the United States. Many of these online venues lay the blame on UIGEA for their closure and non-operation. What was supposed to safeguard the gambling market lead to its near demise.


Extraordinary Considerations for Adult Web Hosting

Running an adult site can be enormous business, and can turn in immense benefits every single day. Nonetheless, possessing and working an adult site isn’t care for running a site of some other kind. There are unique contemplations that you have to consider, and that your adult web host will be worried about. These are the lawful issues that happen when you run an adult site. You have to understand what these issues are on the grounds that any adult web have will make supreme sure that you’re clinging to them.

The primary legitimate issue that comes into question with 성인용품 sites is that your site can’t contain any unlawful substance. At the point when this relates to adult sites, it regularly alludes to ensuring that all models on the webpage, or any recordings or pictures depict just people who are old enough of assent in the region where the site is run from. Generally time of assent is around 18, 19, or 21 thus, models can’t be under that age. In case you’re at all uncertain about what the time of assent is in your general vicinity, you have to ensure that you check with the neighborhood specialists.

Concerning age, there’s another issue that any adult web host will need you to deal with. That is ensuring that no minors enter your site whenever. Obviously, you truly have no power over who visits your site and who doesn’t, yet you should avoid potential risk as you can to guarantee that minors are not permitted. This could incorporate things, for example, requesting that guests enter their age before they can enter the webpage; or showing a lot of pennant promotions and precautionary measures expressing that the site contains adult material.

To completely ensure yourself, it can likewise be a smart thought to have an authorization confine a client must check request to distinguish themselves as being old enough, and having the option to enter your site. This can give verification, if at any time addressed, that you did all that you could to shield underage people from entering your site.

Notwithstanding ensuring that all the models and pictures depict just those that are of lawful age, adult web hosts will likewise not endure any site depicting criminal operations being done on the webpage. This once more, is particularly significant for adult sites in light of the fact that the lines can turn out to be exceptionally hazy with these sorts of locales and individuals can without much of a stretch traverse into unlawful conduct. Be admonished that if this occurs on your site, it will be closed down and, contingent upon the conditions, you could even deal with criminal indictments.

Running an adult site can be an extremely worthwhile business. In any case, before you even start, you will need to locate an adult web have that can store your site and make it accessible online for you and your clients. Understand what adult web has are searching for and you’ll make certain to get the host that will ensure your website; and that you’re playing it safe to secure yourself.

How Mortgage Loans Are Affected by Credit

How Credit Impacts Home Mortgage Loans

When applying for a mortgage loan, one wants to make sure that you have the best possible credit score. Your credit has a great impact on your loan. Your credit profile will affect the home loan interest rate, your ability to qualify for the mortgage loan, and the type of home loan program you can apply here for more info

Since your credit plays an important role in the home mortgage loan process, it is important to understand the relationship between credit and the home loan qualification process. It is also important to know what you can do in order to have the best possible credit profile and score before applying for a mortgage loan.

Bankruptcy and Foreclosures

Bankruptcy and foreclosures are two major negative items on a credit report that can greatly impact the loan decision. On bankruptcy, depending on whether it is Chapter 7 or 13 bankruptcy, one might have to wait 2-4 years before the mortgage will be approved. FHA home loans allow a homebuyer to qualify with a bankruptcy if the bankruptcy has been discharged for at least two years. Clients with a bankruptcy on their credit report must also reestablished their credit with positive trade lines (new accounts) and have no new negative credit reporting to the bureaus since the bankruptcy was filed.